Configuring Python environments

By default, the Python extension relies on the first Python interpreter it finds in the path. The extension uses that interpreter for IntelliSense, auto-completions, linting, formatting, and any other language-related feature other than debugging.

To select a specific interpreter, select the Python: Select Interpreter command from the Command Palette (⇧⌘P (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+P)).

Python: Select Interpreter command

This command automatically looks for and displays a list of available Python interpreters.

List of interpreters

Selecting an interpreter from the list configures your User Settings accordingly. The Status Bar shows the current interpreter and when selected brings up a list of available interpreters. The Status Bar also reflects when no interpreter is selected.

No interpreter selected

The extension looks for interpreters in the following locations:

  • Standard paths such as /usr/local/bin, /usr/sbin, /sbin, c:\\python27, c:\\python36, etc.
  • Virtual environments located under the workspace (project) folder
  • Conda environments

Manually specifying an interpreter

If the interpreter you want to use is not located automatically, you can set the path to it manually in your User Settings settings.json file:

  • Select the File > Preferences > Settings command (⌘, (Windows, Linux Ctrl+,)) to open your User Settings.
  • Create or modify an entry for python.pythonPath with the full path to the Python executable.

For example:

Windows:
```json
"python.pythonPath": "c:/python36/python.exe"
```

Mac/Linux:
```json
"python.pythonPath": "/home/python36/python"
```

Environment variables in the interpreter path

An environment variable can be used in the path setting using the syntax ${env.VARIABLE}. For example:

{
    "python.pythonPath": "${env.PYTHONPATH}/venv/bin/python"
}

Virtual environments

To use a Python interpreter that's installed in a virtual environment:

  1. Edit the python.pythonPath setting to point to the virtual environment. For example:

    Windows:

    {
        "python.pythonPath": "c:/dev/ala/venv/Scripts/python.exe"
    }
    

    Mac/Linux:

    {
        "python.pythonPath": "/home/xxx/dev/ala/venv/bin/python"
    }
    
  2. Configure the same python.pythonPath variable in launch.json.

  3. Ensure that the the libraries and modules you plan on using for linting are installed within the virtual environment.

  4. Restart VS Code.

Python interpreter for debugging

By default, the debugger uses the same python.pythonPath setting as for other features of VS Code. Specifically, the value for pythonPath in the debugger settings simply refers to the main interpreter setting as follows:

{
    "name": "Python",
    "type": "python",
    "request": "launch",
    "stopOnEntry": true,
    "program": "${file}",
    "pythonPath": "${config.python.pythonPath}",
    "debugOptions": [
        "WaitOnAbnormalExit",
        "WaitOnNormalExit",
        "RedirectOutput"
    ]
}

To use a different interpreter for debugging, specify its path directly in the pythonPath setting.

Note: The debugger settings don't support relative paths, including when relying on the main python.pythonPath setting. To work around this, use an environment variable, or create a variable such as ${workspaceRoot} that resolves to your project folder, then use that variable in the path, as in "python.pythonPath": "${workspaceRoot}/venv/bin/python".

For information on general debugging configuration, see Debugging.

Next steps

  • Editing code - Learn about autocomplete, IntelliSense, formatting, and refactoring for Python.
  • Debugging - Learn to debug Python both locally and remotely.
  • Unit testing - Configure unit test environments and discover, run, and debug tests.
  • Settings reference - Explore the full range of Python-related settings in VS Code.